Media in category “Liber linteus”. The following 5 files are in this category, out of 5 total. Lanena knjiga (Liber linteus Zagrebiensis).jpg 2, Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis. The Linen Book of Zagreb: A Comment on the. Longest Etruscan Text. By L.B. VAN DER MEER. (Monographs on Antiquity.) Louvain. After Boxing Day, I came across the Wikipedia entry for Liber Linteus. Casey Goranson had in zeal attempted to translate this artifact’s repeated.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. This small book is written in Linreus by the eminent Russian archaeologist Victor Sarianidi who is well known for his excavations in the area of Bactria and Margiana and is an expanded version of an earlier article which he presented in the Transactions of the Margiana Archaeological Expedition Vol.
Here he deals with the most recent archaeological discoveries. An English translation follows the Russian text of this larger work. The figure and plate captions are presented in both languages.
Although the Forward presents a brief background of Zoroastrianism and what is known of Zarathustra Zarathustra and Zoroaster are libeg interchangeably the thrust of the book is the archaeological finds found in the great Kara-Kum desert that rests on the eastern border of modern Turkmenistan.
This area is known from the Behistun inscription in ancient times as Margush country. At the end of the 3rd millennium BC tribes of lintus and cattle-breeders with a developed art style migrated to this area from the delta of the Ilber river. It was during this period that saw a sharp decline in rainfall that caused instances of great migrations resulting in abandoned fields and settlements.
Liber Linteus – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sarianidi reminds us that many decades ago V. Sarianidi then turns to the various important cults of Zorastrianism, beginning with the cult of fire. Using Mary Boyce as his literary source, Sarianidi connects our knowledge of Zorastrianism to the archaeological discoveries.
This is seen in the two elements placed on fires, herbs and meat or fat—both of which are described by Boyce and found in the archaeological record at the temple at Togolok Moreover, two types of altars have been found and can be connected to two types of ceremonies: He next turns to the cult of water which along with fire was essential for everyday rituals llber the Zoroastrians. It was necessary for this libeg to be clean and a series of filters made of brick have been found through which the water passed on into small pools.
The third cult is that of the earth and the desire to keep from contaminating it. Abundant evidence is found for this. Of great interest was a very large pit-grave in which was found a 4-wheeled cart solid wheels with two donkeys and two camels next to a copper and bronze cauldron that had a capacity of liters.
File:Liber linteus – Wikimedia Commons
Lingeus in the pit was a lamp and a scoop-like shovel. The human remains were of seven people of both genders and various ages. An additional dog appears to have been thrown into the pit at the last minute.
Dogs had also been found at Gonur during an earlier excavation season. The dog had an important but liner role in Zoroastrianism, and the number seven also seems to have been of great importance.
Sarianidi links this repetition of the number seven to Zoroastrian festivals, perhaps Nauruz celebrated on the first day of the new year. Sarianidi is eager to make the case that these excavations be connected to the Indo-Europeans, and it is, therefore, necessary to include the cult of Soma-Haoma. This he does by presenting a number of artifacts which could be used in the manufacture of this drink so essential in IE ritual. These artifacts include strainers, ceramic stands, pipes, cups and a variety of ritual vessels.
Burials of domestic animals are in evidence at Margiana, but there are only a few horses and camels and the latter only in royal graves. The illustrations are not numbered and although they are placed close to their mention in the Russian text, they are less convenient for those who rely on the English.
The plates are also not numbered and are thus inconvenient for readers of both languages. The translation could have been smoother and several times did not seem to provide a good translation of the Russian.
But these are quibbles as the overall book is informative and presents much evidence from Margiana which Prof. Sarianidi believes provides the basis for Zoroastrian religion, particularly with its emphasis on the worship of fire, water, and earth.
Although the worship of these natural elements are found in numerous places in Margiana, it is at the monument of Gonur that they most specifically come together. Although the reader may not agree with the conclusions, the information put forth is of great interest and the thesis provocative. Gordon The Aryans.
Kovalev Drevneyshie statui Chemurcheka i prilegayushchikh territoriy. As the steppe cultures have often been derived from further west such as the Pontic-Caspian steppe they have provided a possible model for how the ancestors of the Tokharians may have migrated from some more westerly point of origin to their historical seats in the northern oases of the Tarim Basin.
He distinguishes them from the stone figures associated with the Okunevo culture discussed recently in this journal by Lyudmila Sokolova and the anthropomorphic stele of western Siberia and Kazakhstan. The ultimate predecessors of this style can be sought much earlier in Europe where Kovalev reviews the evidence from what he argues are comparable statues from France as far back as the end of the 7th millennium BCE.
The second book is edited by A. These may consist of rectangular chambers marked by upright stone slabs and there is some evidence for painting on the walls. The grave would be sealed by a layer or several layers of flat stones and a stone cairn might cover the entire area or the stones might top a layer of soil forming a low kurgan.
Within the outer stone precinct, usually on the east or south, might be found one or more of the spectacular stone stele. Both the burial structures and the stone stele are seen to find their closest analogues in the French Neolithic.
Grave gifts typically include both stone and linfeus vessels, some of which resembled the pointed —based pots of the Afanasievo culture.
Associated with the latter is also the libber find of clay censers. Rather, he finds their closest ceramic parallels in France, particularly Laguedoc, Brittany and the Rhone region.
His ,inteus article explores the problem of Tokharian origins. Accepting the premise that the ancestors of the historical Tokharians must have been isolated from other Indo-European groups and also in contact with non-Indo- European-speaking populations, he suggests that this should translate archaeologically into a population whose material culture was also isolated from its neighbors.
From his survey of the various arguments he derives a linguistic model of the west to east movement of the Proto- Tokharians. During the second half of the 4th? In the 3rd to 2nd millennium BCE they had moved into a territory of non-Indo-European speakers which was also distant from both the Indo-Iranians and the earliest Uralic speakers.
By the mid 2nd millennium BCE they were in contact with the emerging Chinese civilization and, later, the Iranians. Its origins lie in western Europe, specifically western linteys southern France, where it finds its closest source in respect to burial structure, stone stele, the use of painted ochre inside the ljnteus and the form and ornament of the vessels.
From there it moved ultimately to the Altai where it, along with the presumably related Elunino culture, formed the predecessor to the pre-Seima-Turbino horizon, the great Bronze Age metallurgical horizon that strongly influences both the cultures of the Eurasian steppe and that of Bronze Age China.
It is difficult to discern anything in the archaeological record that would suggest a major west to east movement while a migration from the European steppe spreading the ideology found within the Yamnaya package has been specifically linked to the appearance of some of the anthropomorphic stele found in Italy and Switzerland Harrison and Heyd With no staging areas proximate to the Altay region, it is extremely difficult to give any credence to a migration from southern France.
Nevertheless, the author of these two works must be congratulated for providing readers with so much well illustrated material of a truly fascinating cultural phenomenon. Journal of Indo-European Studies 38, Mair The Tarim Mummies. London and New York, Thames and Hudson. Journal of Indo-European Studies 40, Mallory The Anthropomorphic Stelae of the Ukraine: The Early Iconography of the Indo-Europeans.
Washington, Institute for the Study of Man. Les Belles Lettres, For those interested in the comparative approach to Indo-European ideologies this is a major work. The idea of such an expansion is of course not new, for the two Welsh brothers, Alwyn and Brinley Rees, were already proposing a fourth function in But not by all of them.
Developing the Reeses, the Sauzeaus interpret trifunctionalism as covering the ideological realm of order, and the fourth function as covering a complementary realm of non-order. Non-order includes disorder, but it can also be conceptualised in more positive terms such as marginality and alterity. Its dynamism is such that it can end up dominating the triadic order, even destroying it.
In five-item series the fifth and concluding item often represents the set viewed holistically — as the centre represents the whole of the space that is partitioned between cardinal points. Kay in their classic Basic Color Terms. A black-white dualism gained salience with the rise of the literate religions, but originally the four basic colors correlated with functions as follows: Recognition of a fourth function necessarily has implications for the interpretation of many social phenomena, and a third of the book pursues them.
So do marginal members of society, whether their marginality is temporary initiands, outlaws or permanent. Throughout the book the authors are careful both to avoid rigid formulations and to recognise historical change.
An activity like agriculture can belong firmly to F3, while those who practise it may fall under F4; and craftsmen hover about the same border. A chapter on mediums ranges widely, situating under F4 not only sibyls, diviners, prophets, poets and certain sorts of sage or philosopher, but also the ethnographically attested ritual specialists of the Hindu Kush. Another third of the book is devoted to the theological issues raised by a fourth function.
It starts with Roman cult. Most of the deities served by flamens maiores or minores can be linked with the classical functions, but there are many other deities, including some important ones Janus, Neptune, Diana… who lack a flamen; so can they be accommodated under F4?
In general the proposal is that they can, but the authors again avoid simplistic solutions: In a more clear-cut manner they contrast F3 Ceres, associated with crops and growth and served by a flamen, with the flamen-less Tellus or Terra, aligning the opposition with that between Demeter and Gaia.
The Roman focus continues in a convincing four- functional reading of the boat-race in Aeneid 5. The fourth function is not presented as an undifferentiated continuum. Within it the authors distinguish two interrelated theological complexes. The members of this complexe panico-aryamanique are characterized as deities of passage and communication. The Sauzeaus attempt just this. Even when the three functions are supplemented by a category variously labelled synthetic, transfunctional or royal, they do not add up to a plausible ideology, and one gladly welcomes any effort to follow the Reeses in seeing outsiders as part of the structure, and not as a secondary or ad hoc addition to it.
The Sauzeaus frequently cite the parallel Reesian approach that this reviewer has been developing across a number of scattered articles, but they do not accept the binary split that I situate within the fourth function roughly, between a valued and a devalued aspect.
It also implies a number of different interpretations e. However, to spell out the arguments involved would far exceed the bounds of a book review, and I have concentrated on presentation rather than critique.
In any case, as the authors often note, they are planning a second volume covering eschatology and epic. These areas have provided many of my arguments and are probably easier to work with than institutions and deities.