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Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey – the Celebrated Educationist

Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey, the celebrated educationist was born at Ziavi Dzogbe in the then German Togoland on the 15th of July, 1917. During the 1960s and 1970s, he championed the cause of education in the Volta Region and in Ghana as a whole. This to a very large extent resulted in a boom of educational development in the Volta Region during those early years after Ghana’s independence.

The sixth of ten (10) children born to Togbe Norgbey Nani of the royal clan of Tsadaviefe, Ziavi and Sarah Abra Anku of Anaviefe also in Ziavi, he was named Kwasi for being born on a Sunday. He was christened and baptised Gershon to follow the tradition of Hebro-Germanic names his father gave the older boys; Gotthold and Erasmus. Gershon himself added Richard when he had Eucharistic Confirmation in the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in his youth. Though Gershon Norgbey kept his two European names, he departed from this tradition by giving all his children only indigenous EWE names . Gershon Norgbey spent his early childhood, like most children of his generation, with his parents in Ziavi.

His father Norgbey Nani was a well travelled man and had farms in the Ahamansu forest regions of the Trans-Volta Togoland, a part of which is now the Volta Region of Ghana. He was an enlightened man and though he did not have formal education, he spoke some little German and played the accordion with which he entertained his family and friends in the evening after farm work.

His mother Anku-Bra, as she was popularly known in Ziavi, was a tall beautiful woman with a lot of vim and vigour. She was the only wife of Norgbey Nani and all his ten children were born by her. She helped her husband on his farms but her main preoccupation was to take care of the house and children. Five of the children who survived to adulthood were male: Gotthold, Erasmus, Gershon Richard, Emmanuel Krakani and Philemon Atta-Kuma. All these men were highly talented and carved niches for themselves quite early in life. Gotthold was a traditionalist and a musician composer. Erasmus was a community developer, tailor and award winning farmer. Gershon Richard was a distinguished educator. Krakani was a powerful preacher, healer, farmer and carpenter. Philemon Atta-Kuma had a remarkable career as a Health Superintendent and fathered many. Tasii (Aunt) Akua or Reuben-nor was the eldest of all Mama Anku-Bra’s children. Amelia also known as Yao-nor was a bright, intelligent and active woman; she was an affluent trader. She was a cementing element in a family of energetic and strong willed men. Victoria was cool and exuded love and peace.

Mama Anku-bra’s compound was usually filled in the evening with immediate and extended family, for her cooking pots always held more than enough for her husband and children. Even after the children got married and left her care, she still cooked and shared the food with her grandchildren. The tradition of all the male in this family eating from the same bowl was so entrenched that a clich developed around it: -No one invites you to your own meal-. In those days, there were no schools in Ziavi and because Gershon’s father wanted him to go to school, he had to send him away to Ho to live with members of extended family and friends. There are no records as to when he started school but Gershon Norgbey did not start school early. He was however very bright and had to skip some classes to find academic work challenging and interesting enough. He spent only four years instead of six in the primary school. Now young Gershon did not have everything when he went to school. He told a story of how he was given an old pair of German khaki shorts by his father. The shorts obviously were too big for him and were designed to be worn with braces. He did not have braces and neither could he afford a belt so he cut a piece of twine in the forest and with it he fastened his pair of big khaki shorts in place. Before long it became fashion and all the boys in the school were wearing pieces of dried forest twines for belts. He exhibited strong leadership qualities even from this tender age. Gershon Norgbey completed Senior School in Ho in the early to mid 1930s.

Having completed Senior School, GRK, as he was popularly known in educational circles, was recruited to teach in the colonial school system as a pupil teacher. He immediately found his calling as an educator. He took the Teacher Training College examinations and entered the Presbyterian Training College, Akropong, where he completed the Certificate of Teacher Training (Certificate -B-) and later in 1957, the Certificate -A- training. He talked about this institution very fondly for years; about the proverbial Presbyterian discipline, which he fully imbibed and exhibited for all the years he lived.

Gershon Richard Norgbey returned from Akropong to continue his teaching career as a fully trained teacher in 1957. Through his career, he taught in many different towns and villages including Abutia, Akuse, Krobo Odumase, Avenui, Takla and had several tours of duty in his hometown Ziavi Dzogbe.

In the early sixties, when Kwame Nkrumah started a fee-free compulsory education system in Ghana, all local authorities were instructed to open new schools, hire teachers, and expand educational opportunities at the local level. The position of Education Secretary was therefore created in the Ho District . Senior Head Teachers were invited to compete, through examination, for the post with a mandate to open new schools in the district, hire and train teachers, place and pay staff, create and administer a system of Local Authority (LA) schools in the district. Gershon Richard Norgbey succeeded in a fierce competition for the position and became the first and the only Education Secretary for Local Authority Schools in the Ho District.

Gershon Richard Norgbey or Master Efu , as he was called in Ziavi, became a pivotal figure in the expansion of educational opportunities in the central Volta Region in the 1960s. In his official short chassis Land Rover station wagon, which was painted light brown as if to hide the dust it would pick up on the unpaved roads and tracks, he criss-crossed a virtually unopened region with a single purpose – developing education. He opened many schools in the Ho District, hired both trained and pupil teachers and ensured proper administration of these local authority schools. He also managed a system of Supply Teachers who were mostly secondary or sixth form students on holidays. These supply teachers were posted for a few days to weeks to replace substantive teachers in Primary and Middle Schools, who might be on sick leave or on permitted absence for some other reasons. With his qualification, experience, personality and drive, he could have successfully vied for ministerial positions which existed for hard working and competent Ghanaians and even sometimes for the veranda-boys in those times. At the worst, he could have jostled for the position of an executive court clown sitting aimlessly in court trying to catch the attention of TV cameramen anytime the cameras rolled by if he were a fly catcher. He chose instead to work in education where he was most effective and did not discriminate the rural from the urban.

He spoke of times when he had to abandon his Station Wagon and walked several kilometres of foot tracks to either talk to chiefs to release land for school projects or to inspect schools being built. His appearance or mention inspired hope and order among teachers, parents and pupils alike. His name assumed legendary proportions in the central districts of the Volta Region and beyond. Though the main thrust of his duties was on developing elementary or basic education, his contribution to secondary education was also immense. As Education Secretary, he served on the Boards of Governors of Mawuli School, Ho; OLA Secondary School, Ho; Amedzofe Teacher Training College and the now defunct Ho Teacher Training College. The Kpedze and Awudome Secondary Schools were second cycle schools Mr Norgbey helped in establishing in addition to the numerous Primary and Middle schools he opened.

While already seen as the role model in the Ziavi community and as an educator, it was during this period in his life that he exerted the most influence and assisted in very significant ways in promoting the importance of education in Ziavi. He hired innumerable and capable middle school leavers as pupil teachers and encouraged them to train as professional teachers. Together with his elder brother Erasmus Norgbey, they knocked at the doors of parents of bright pupils who had passed the common entrance and teacher training college examinations, and convinced them to send their children to secondary schools and colleges; sometimes under extremely difficult circumstances. The educational revolution in Ziavi was born. There are very few educated individuals in Ziavi who grew up in the 1950’s through the 1970’s whose lives were not touched in one way or the other by Gershon Norgbey’s work.

Gershon Norgbey did not only try to help others educate their children. He taught by example. With the help of his wives, he educated his own children to the extent he was capable. Today, of his thirteen (13) children (one who unfortunately passed on), at least seven (7) have University degrees with two holding PhD’s. The others have college diplomas sometimes to the highest level. Four are teachers of assistant director’s rank. There is an environmental scientist, a consultant obstetrician and gynaecologist, a pharmacist, a financial economist, a police chief inspector, a cooperative marketer, an educational technologist, and two have returned to Universities to pursue advanced degrees both in Ghana and abroad.

Eight (8) of his grandchildren by the year 2008 have acquired degrees in various disciplines and are pursuing careers in varied fields; seven (7) others are in universities in Ghana and abroad working towards degrees in the arts, sciences and business and these numbers keep growing from year to year. This is a true evidence of the lasting legacy of his educational influence.

There is no gainsaying the educational achievement of GR’s children. Many people might not immediately reckon the cost of educating this large family. It was enormous. The incidence of the financial cost of this whole praiseworthy educational endeavour however fell in most part on the mothers of these children, especially those who could not enter secondary school before his demise. Five of GR’s children were still in the first cycle (basic) schools when he died. The psychological drive for attaining educational heights which flowed down from him to his family was however not in short supply, even after his death and this spurred his children on.

Gershon Richard also personally mentored a number of individuals from the Ziavi community and beyond; with some rising to international acclaim. One such person was his nephew, the late civil engineering guru and academic, Professor Jonas Kwaku Dake.

GR Norgbey married Madam Christine Kwampa quite early in life and she bore him a number of children, four of whom survived to adulthood. In 1945, when on duty tour at Takla, GR met Madam Eugenia Mana from the Adzoe/Quarcoo family and married her. Six of the children he had with her grew to adulthood. While on duty in the 1950’s in Avenui in the Awudome Traditional Area, GR met Madam Adolphine Adae and started another family which has produced three generations of policewomen. In 1961 while on inspection of some schools in the Abutia area, he met an Anlo lady from Atiavi in the Keta District called Mary Wemasenu who was teaching in one of the Abutia villages called Keseflui. Mary became his youngest wife and bore him two sons. Truly the two youngest of GR’s children were born in 1968 – Eric Agbemafa and Margaret Apefa.

Many people did not understand why GR Norgbey decided to have many wives and also that many children. It was not quite unusual for a learned man of his stature to have more than one wife in Ghana even today. Others thought it was prestigious for him to do so considering his enormous resource mobilisation capabilities. Apart from being a good teacher, he was also a good farmer. It was said jokingly that protgs who clamoured to work on his farm often got lost within the boundaries of his vast farms and man hours were rather spent to look for them.

Some pundits said that having a large family was engrained in GR’s psyche right from childhood and was not a product of recklessness. He was born into a large family which reaped more benefits of its large size than the disadvantages of it. Times though have since changed. The average number of offspring per GR’s children, as at the end of 2008, stood at a modest 2.77.

On a serious note, GRK’s polygamous lifestyle affected his relationship with the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Ziavi. GR Norgbey was an eloquent lay preacher whose sermons were directed more at tackling social ills which plagued the Ziavi community and the politics of division which crept into the local church in those days. Delivering his fiery sermons, he stepped on toes, sometimes of bigwigs in the church. A group in the leadership of the local church conspired to keep him quiet by alluding to his multiple marriages and drew more venom from him. Although they did not attempt to excommunicate him, they tried to debar him from his pastime – mounting the pulpit to preach. GRK was a staunch believer in fairness, discipline of the mind, soul and body, and of freedom of expression and of association. He was dynamic; he was passionate about exploring opportunities and breaking new grounds. What he could not accept on any account was condoning hypocrisy and lies. He therefore moved to the Methodist Church which at that time put a lot of premium on his services as a teacher with remarkable qualities, and was more liberal with new members’ marital practices. Mr G R Norgbey therefore served his classroom teaching and head teacher years mostly in the Methodist Schools of Akuse, Avenui and Krobo Odumase.

Despite these limitations in his relationship with the church at home, he continued to be a role model, an opinion leader and a force majeure in the development efforts in his home town Ziavi – an effort to which the Evangelical Presbyterian Church was and continue to be a major partner. In December 2007, these efforts were given the due recognition and Mr Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey was posthumously honoured during the Centenary Celebrations of the Establishment of the Evangelical Presbyterian Church in Ziavi.

Gershon Richard Norgbey was very much involved in community development activities in the Ziavi Township. His elder brother Erasmus Norgbey was the Chairman of the Ziavi Town Development Committee (a committee of which Gershon Norgbey was also a member) when the Golden Jubilee of the Ziavi EP Church was celebrated. Rare for a Ghanaian rural setting and the highly networked streets seen in Ziavi today, were constructed during those celebrations in or about the year 1957. After his brother’s death in 1968, Gershon Richard Norgbey assumed an even more prominent role as educator extra-ordinaire, counsellor and community developer.

Gershon Richard lived a very rich social life. He danced to the Ziavi Yingor (the traditional popular band in the borborbor genre) music with zest and also did the classical dances very beautifully. His presence at traditional festivals, christening ceremonies, wedding and funeral celebrations was greeted with rippling excitement. With all his achievements, he was very approachable. He had a circle of friends but a discourse of his social life will not be complete without the mention of two of his cousins and very great friends: Mr Alexander Asimadu (Uncle Sande) and Mr Francis Debrah (Uncle Prempeh). These were fine gentlemen of their time who also worked in education.

The Norgbey family is a huge family numerically. It is rare for members of this family to drop the Norgbey for another surname. It is a uniquely established name in the Volta Region and beyond. It took the able leadership of GR Norgbey to pool the energies of this family together and create a brand of surname that is carried with pride in Ghana and overseas. Little variations in spelling may occur – Norgbe, Noagbe – you are sure dealing with the same name.

Adza(father)- NYE, the single identifiable ancestor of the Awatrofe-NYE/Norgbey clan was also the royal landlord of Ziavi Dzogbe. It is a blessing to be born into a family endowed with resources and titles. With this endowment comes a big responsibility of maintaining the size and quality of the resources therein. With increasing population came pressure on natural resources and with it also came intruders, encroachers and usurpers. The blurring of strict family lines through intermarriages and squatting in Ziavi made it very difficult for land owners to defend their property. Awatrofe-Nye/Norgbey lands were no exception. Pieces of Awatrofe-Nye land were stolen with impunity and with them royal and functional titles. It took the instrumental intervention and leadership of GR Norgbey to retrieve some of this ancestral heritage. In these endeavours he invested huge amounts of money and time. His formula for success in these matters however was teamwork. -You must be ready to serve if you want to lead’, he often quipped. To get back stolen lands and titles, he sometimes had to go to court. His legal team comprised of Togbe Albert Norgbey and Togbe Kodzo Akorli Norgbey all of blessed memory. His most important ally however, was the truth. Descendants of Asiam of Anaviefe Ziavi and Ngornee of Gboxome Ziavi remained his witnesses and always attested that only three ancestors owned land in Ziavi, Awatrofe-NYE and his two cousins Asiam and Ngornee. GRK’s landmark dawn family meetings with other family elders ensured that information was updated in all households in the family on regular bases and that only verified and certified information was disseminated.

In earlier years, Gershon and his brother Erasmus Norgbey, who were actively involved in district politics, were also staunch members of Kwame Nkrumah’s Convention People’s Party (CPP). GRK and Erasmus were among the vanguards who fought for the unification of the Trans-Volta Togoland with the Gold Coast and supported the push for an early independence for Ghana.

It was told that on 5th March 1957, the eve of Independence of Ghana, members of the Freedom Party or -Ablode- (the fashion opposed to the unification) started pelting the Norgbey family house with stones, and were threatening to attack GRK, his brother Erasmus and other CPP activists holed up in the house. There were no telephone connections to Ziavi then and mobile phone technology was yet to be developed. In a brilliant security move, a note was sent to the police chief in Ho some four kilometres away through a courier who left the house carrying a bucket – ostensibly to the river (Atakpla) for water. In 20 minutes the town was filled with riot police and the siege ended abruptly as it started.

Fifty years on, all the opponents to the CPP and their children and many children and grandchildren of Gershon, Erasmus and other staunch CPP members find themselves in the National Democratic Congress (NDC), all united against the National Patriotic Party (NPP) which is in the minority in this town. The CPP is almost non-existent here. Selasi Gakplanya Norgbey, a bastion of the revived CPP in the Ho Central Constituency, passed on a few years ago and may his soul rest in perfect peace. The political landscape has changed completely. The Norgbey house is still a political hotbed but on the side of the NDC which has virtually usurped the fortunes of the CPP. The Norgbey family however lives up to its democratic ideals -one of which is freedom of association. There are a few NPP members amongst its fold today.

Following the overthrow of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah’s CPP in February 1966 and the resulting changes in local government administration, the local educational authorities were abolished. Gershon Norgbey returned home, and headed the Ziavi L A Middle School once again and for the last time. In 1969 he became a Principal Teacher and was posted to Damongo in the Northern Region as an Inspector of Schools. He impacted tremendously on the educational developments in that part of the country.

His posting to the Northern Region in 1969 coincided with the inception of political activity in the country after a three year ban by the then ruling National Liberation Council. As a political strategist, GR’s posting to the North deprived him of the opportunity to contribute effectively at home to the efforts of the National Alliance of Liberals (NAL) which was a reorganisation of members of the proscribed CPP, and was headed by Mr. Agbeli Gbedemah. Was GR Norgbey’s posting masterminded by those in power then? Did he ask to be posted up north so he could concentrate on his career as an educator? These were some of the questions asked then. The centre-right Progress Party eventually won the majority in parliament and formed the government of the second republic. The Progress Party rule however did not last long and ended with the coup d’etat of January 13, 1972.

GR’s ability to achieve results was phenomenal and this had sent the name of Norgbey and Ziavi well beyond the boundaries of the Volta Region in the early post independence years. In 1972, he returned to the Ho District Education Office and served in various capacities. He was made the officer in charge of Logistics and Textbooks, and later the district head of the Schools Inspectorate Division. He retired in 1974 after working in the District Education Office for a few years while continuing his involvement in the development activities of the Ziavi Township. In August 1977, Gershon Norgbey died at his home in Ziavi after a short illness.

At the celebration of his funeral in September 1977, all the streets which he helped to carve out 20 years earlier, were filled with mourners from all corners of the country. The funeral service was led by the Parish Priest in charge of the Methodist Church of Ghana at Ho. As representatives of schools and colleges, government, professional, social and political organisations, chiefs and individuals in their own rights filed to pay their last respect, a lone shrill voice exclaimed, -a prophet is seldom accepted in his own home!-

After the burial of GR Norgbey, the Methodist Church was established in Ziavi in the October of 1977. In appreciation of his good pedagogical works in the Methodist Educational Unit and to engender the rapid growth of the church in Ziavi, a school was established in his name in 1978: the GR Norgbey Methodist Experimental Primary School. Notwithstanding all difficulties associated with starting a school, this school was so successful that six years after its establishment, all the class six pupils who wrote the common entrance examinations were successful; a feat achieved only by elite preparatory schools in the metropolis of Accra, Tema and Kumasi.

Gershon Richard Kwasi Norgbey is remembered fondly today for his enormous contributions to the development of education in the Volta Region of Ghana, and also as an astute farmer who cultivated the first plantation size oil palm farm in Ziavi. He was a brilliant musician with a number of his light tunes still sweetly remembered today. He also contributed, in no mean measure, to developing and restructuring the chieftaincy institution in Ziavi.

The Author Mighty Agbenuke Kwaku Norgbey, (MSc Economics (Finance & Banking), Kishinev; MSc PAFI, York UK), is the 11th child of GR Norgbey.

Acknowledgements I pay solemn tributes to Uncles Krakani and Philemon Atta-Kuma Norgbey, for the insightful memories about G R Norgbey, which they shared in their lifetime with the author.

I acknowledge the contribution of Dr Segbedzi W Norgbey and Dr Gameli K Norgbe for providing the sketch text which was developed into this piece.

Thanks to Eric Agbemafa Norgbey who proofread the article and suggested necessary revisions to make this historical account an interesting reading.

Explanatory Notes

The Ho District 1The Ho District then was a very expansive area covering the Awudome, Sokode, Abutia, Adaklu, Ho, Avatime, Kpedze, Ave, Agotime, Etordome, Anfoeta, Saviefe, Ziavi, Taviefe, Klefe, Matse, Agogoe, Dzolo, Tanyigbe, Nyive, Akrofu, Hlefi, Hodzo and other enclaves. Each of these enclaves contained more than two towns or villages with some having as many as 36 towns and villages. A few of these traditional areas had towns which were already urban in structure and could have quite a number of schools eg Ho, Tsito, Kpedze, Vane, Amedzofe and Kpetoe. The substantial part of the district was however underdeveloped and rural, and needed a lot of educational development.

Indigenous Ewe Names 2GRK christened his children Semadzi, Elesi, Semabia, Segbedzi, Sefakor, Amewodzina, Enyonam, Mawutor, Gameli, Mawusi, Agbetor, Agbenuke, Agbemafa, and Apefa. His brother Erasmus also gave his children names like Selete, Senagbe, Semenyo, Selasi, Babanaeto, Apenorvi and Eli among others.

In Ewe traditional religion, God – Mawu, Nature/Fate – Se, and Life – Agbe are considered Supreme and are used interchangeably. Semabia – I will ask God/Nature/my Fate Segbedzi – God’s bidding/Nature’s bidding/Life’s bidding Senagbe – God gives life/nature gives life/ Life gives life.

For example, the three meanings of Senagbe confirm the ability of the many concepts in Ewe traditional wisdom to converge religious doctrine (biblical teaching) and evolutionary science (Darwinism). God is life – God the Creator; Nature gives life- creation of life from matter, evolution by natural selection. Life gives life – you can only give what you are/have.

Master Efu 3 -Efu- is an Ewe word which means Bone in English. Not many could tell the origin of this appellation. One school of thought had it that GR Norgbey was so good academically that he was nicknamed -Bone- or -Efu- to show how intelligent he was.

Some other people associated the name with GR’s tall lanky physique and called him -Bone- or -Efu- for not having a lot of flesh.

The Volta Region of Ghana

Location: The easternmost Region of Ghana, bordered by the Eastern Region to the west, the Greater Accra Region to the southwest, the Gulf of Guinea to the south, the Northern Region to the north and the Republic of Togo to the east.

The People: The people of the Volta Region are predominantly Ewe. The Ewe (Fon) language is also spoken in the Republic of Togo and the west of Republic of Benin. The Volta Region is also home to the Guan clans of Avatime, Akpafu, Buem, Bowiri, Nkonya, Logba, Tafi, Nyangbo, Likpe and Santrokofi. Some Akan and Dangbe people are also found in this region.

Major Towns: Ho, Keta, Anloga, Aflao, Denu, Kpando, Hohoe, Jasikan

Tourist Attractions: The Wli / Agumatsa Waterfall – the highest waterfall in West Africa. Location: Hohoe District

Afadjato Mountains – Highest Mountain Peak in Ghana. Location: Liati, Hohoe District

Tafi Monkey Sanctuary – rare exhibition of human/wildlife cohabitation. Location: Tafi Atome, Hohoe District

Kente Village – every household has a loom on which the kente fabric (traditional Ewe/Ashanti textile) is woven. Location: Agotime Kpetoe, Adaklu Anyigbe District

Fort Prezenstein – Keta, Keta Municipality

Kalakpa Resource Reserve – Abutia Mountains. Location: Abutia, Ho Municipality

The Roman Catholic Church Grotto – Awe-inspiring religious scenery – Location: Kpando Agbenorxoe, Kpando District

Fresh Tilapia Joints: Sogakope, South Tongu District

Water Sports: Volta River, Sogakope, South Tongu District

Home Roasted Coffee (Ziavi tutui): Ziavi, Ho Municipality

Organic Bananas: Ziavi, Ho Municipality

Traditional Festivals Hogbetsotso – the great migration of the Ewe people. Venue: Anloga, Anlo State.

Yam Festival – Asogli Traditional Area, Venue: Ho

Awazorli – the migration of the Ewe people. The festival is celebrated by the Ziavi, Botoku, Mepe, Kpedze and Kpando Dzigbe Communities. Venue: Rotates among the Awazorli communities

Hotels: Chances Hotel, Ho Pensioners’ House, Ho

CONTINUITY This text will be revised periodically on receipt of additional information on GR Norgbey, his life and contribution to education in Ghana.

Pending Proposal Could Jail Michigan Parents For Educational Neglect

Under the law, parents are legally bound to their children until they reach 18 years of age. Guardians are required to provide for the mental and physical well-being of their young ones, as well as teach them the difference between right and wrong. Although this seems like a general definition of a good parent, experienced Childrens Protective Services defense lawyers in Michigan warn that a pending proposal in Detroit could place even more responsibilities on guardians, potentially resulting in jail time.

In the past few weeks, Detroit has been a hotbed of juvenile crime and violence. According to Wayne County Prosecutor Kym Worthy, this problem can largely be attributed to parents and their failing to be accountable for the actions of their children.

Currently, the Wayne County Prosecutors Office does penalize parents and guardians if their children miss an excessive amount of school. However, by the time the legal system gets involved, the student has already missed a substantial amount of class putting them even further behind. According to The Associated Press, hundreds of these cases are reviewed each year, but only around 50 result in prosecution. If a parent is convicted of Michigan educational neglect, the misdemeanor would be accompanied with a fine and up to 90 days behind bars.

Worthy cites the recent example of Demarco Harrisa then 12 year-old, arrested by police for murder. Law enforcement officials maintain that when they were looking for the young boy, one of the first places they searched was his parents home. When they knocked on the door at around 2:00 a.m. -when any juvenile should be home and in bed- the parents stated that they did not know where their son was.

Harris conviction of Michigan murder charges in May convinced Worthy that parental involvement in the schooling system was severely lacking, and could be a reason for the ever-present low attendance and graduation rates in Detroit. Should Worthys plan pass, parents in Wayne County would be required to attend at least one parent-teacher conference a year. If the first meeting is missed, a letter will automatically be sent requesting a new conference within 14 days. Should parents also miss the second meeting, they could face three days behind bars.

Although the ordinance has good intentions, it is very unlikely to become law because it could infringe on the parents civil rights. The executive director of Michigans American Civil Liberties Union, Kary Moss, believes such a proposal is inappropriately placed. A criminal justice solution is not the answer to complicated social problems, Moss explained, The last thing many families in dire situations need is more punishment by the criminal justice community. Theres established law already that governs child abuse and neglect, and that sets up the standard for involvement by the government in the familys affairs.

There are other opposing factors to consider when it comes to Worthys ordinance. While legislators in other states have attempted to pass similar proposals, all have failed to make it out of committee. In fact, there is no current legislation in existence that resembles what Worthy would like to see passed. Additionally, many parents are too busy working ensuring that there is food on the table for their family, let alone attend a parent-teacher conference. For many single parents in the city of Detroit, finding a way to attend a meeting with an educator can be a difficult and challenging task.

Even though Worthys proposal will likely fail like the others, it is nonetheless interesting to see how much responsibility is placed in the hands of parents. While it is true that the legal system requires parents to provide for their children, does that necessarily include forcing them to be involved in their education as well? Should hard-working guardians be sent to jail because they have missed a parent-teacher conference? Is this considered neglect?

For answers to these and other complex legal questions, it is important to seek knowledgeable Childrens Protective Services defense attorneys in Michigan for answers. Being suspected of poor parenting is a serious accusation that can have life-changing consequences, including fines, jail time, and even the termination of parental rights. Therefore, it is essential to be pro-active in finding assistance for your case, ensuring that your civil rights and family are well-protected.

Gandhi’s Views On Education

By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man – body, mind and spirit. Literacy is not the end of education nor even the beginning. It is only one of the means whereby man and woman can be educated. Literacy in itself is no education. I would therefore begin the child’s education by teaching it a useful handicraft and enabling it to produce from the moment it begins its training.

I hold that the highest development of the mind and the soul is possible under such a system of education. Only every handicraft has to be taught not merely mechanically as is done today but scientifically, i.e., the child should know the why and the wherefore of every process. I am not writing this without some confidence, because it has the backing of experience. This method is being adopted more or less completely wherever spinning is being taught to workers.

I have myself taught sandal-making and even spinning on these lines with good results. This method does not exclude a knowledge of history and geography. But I find that this is best taught by transmitting such general information by word of mouth. One imparts ten times as much in this manner as by reading and writing. The signs of the alphabet may be taught later when the pupil has learnt to distinguish wheat from chaff and when he has somewhat developed his or her tastes.

This is a revolutionary proposal, but it saves immense labour and enables a student to acquire in one year what he may take much longer to learn. This means all round economy. Of course, the pupil learns mathematics whilst he is learning his handicraft.

Given the right kind of teachers, our children will be taught the dignity of labour and learn to regard it as an integral part and means of their intellectual growth, and to realize that it is patriotic to pay for their training through their labour. The core of my suggestion is that handicrafts are to be taught, not merely for productive work, but for developing the intellect of the pupils.

Surely, if the State takes charge of the children between seven and fourteen, and trains their bodies and minds through productive labour, the public schools must be frauds and teachers idiots, if they cannot become self-supporting.

We have up to now concentrated on stuffing childrens minds with all kinds of information, without ever thinking of stimulating and developing them. Let us now cry a halt and concentrate on educating the child properly through manual work, not as a side activity, but as the prime means of intellectual training…

You have to train the boys in one occupation or another. Around this special occupation you will train up his mind, his body, his handwriting, his artistic sense, and so on. He will be a master of the craft he learns.

Literary training by itself adds not an inch to one’s moral height and that character building is independent of literary training. Let the students realize that learning without courage is like a waxen statuebeautiful to look at but bound to melt at the least touch of a hot substance.

Music should form part of the syllabus of primary education. I heartily endorse this proposition. The modulation of voice is as necessary as the training of the hand. Physical drill, handicrafts, drawing and music should go hand in hand in order to draw the best out of the boys and girls and create in them real interest in their tuition.

A wise parent allows the children to make mistakes. It is good for them once in a while to burn their fingers.

Gandhi had great clarity on education, as he had on several other areas. Are his ideas still relevant? Should we fundamentally rethink education and make it more appropriate to the context rural or urban? Do share your thoughts in this regard.

The Thought Behind a Sale

Consumers are constantly bombarded with advertising, it’s on signs, on the Internet, on your phone and on television. There is far more to those flashy ads and catchy jingle than many consumers understand. Marketing is a thriving industry that has come to rely on consumer psychology to ensure that the ads consumers see encourage them to buy the products and services on display. Click here to learn more about the concepts behind this new marketing approach and creating a successful business. Some of the keys to ensuring sales are based on these few techniques.

  • Create a demand or desire for your product or service by making it appear to be exclusive. Everyone wants the best, so market to that need and desire to have only the best and most luxurious. That desire over rules logical thought and attaches emotion to a purchase. Once a consumer has forged an emotional bond with your item or service, they are much more likely to stay focused on it and not shop around for other alternatives.
  • Find your key demographic and make them your groupies. Get that group of consumers so excited about your product that they become a free advertisement for you. They will tell friends and family about your amazing product or service and encourage them to buy as well. Their dedication to your business will build the foundation for your loyal customer base.
  • Use your logo and design to emotionally connect with customers. Your logo will be retained in a consumer’s subconscious long after they have looked at your product. Make the design appealing and interesting so your business stays in their thoughts. Those memorable designs will continue to encourage an emotional attachment to your product.

Click here to learn more about the latest trends and the psychology behind a successful marketing campaign.

Singhania University Rajasthan An epitome of Innovation in education!

Singhania University which is one of the top universities in Rajasthan has been established by the Singhania University, Pacheri Bari, Distt. Jhunjhunu (Rajasthan) Ordinance 2007. Singhania University is established by government of Rajasthan and is recognized as per the section 2f of UGC act, 1956. As per the location, above mentioned top university in Rajasthan is about 160 kms from West of Delhi and about 165 kms from North of Jaipur. This top university of Rajasthan is the first placement and research oriented university in Rajasthan. Singhania University Rajasthan comes under one of the top universities in India regarding the wide variety of courses it offers and excellent course curriculum it follows.

Singhania University mainly offers courses in four fields of education and higher studies, namely, Engineering, Management, Bio-Technology and Allied Health Sciences. For example regarding engineering and medical courses, this top university in Rajasthan provides diploma and degree courses in areas like automobile, civil, mechanical, computer, information technology, communication, industrial production and architecture etc. Apart from these diploma and degree courses Singhania University also offers some postgraduate degree courses like MBA, MCA, MSc. and M-Tech. Singhania University also provides some certificate and diploma courses like Medical lab technology (MLT); Up- Vaidya; Yoga; Homeopathy Pharmacy; First Aid; MLT; Electro-Cardio-Graphy and radio Imaging Technology( DERT); ECG technology; Live stock and veterinary Science (VLDA). Some of these courses are really unconventional and equally exciting to pursue.

Singhania University is an epitome of world-class infrastructure, highly qualified and dedicated faculties and excellent environment for academic and intellectual growth of students. The Top University in India, Singhania University focuses on comprehensive growth of the students, working on their hearts and minds by giving full concentration to their academic, cultural, physical and social needs in an environment of continuous interaction and growth that is favorable for the enrichment of mind and body. The faculty of Singhania University Rajasthan is fully committed and extremely talented. Teachers invest all their skills and knowledge to impart quality education to the students as they are the ones who will shape the future of our country. Singhania University is renowned not only to produce excellent academic results but also to produce excellent and successful professionals those can face the challenges of the world. At Singhania University special emphasis is given to communication skills and personality development. The uniqueness of the curriculum and various programmes of this one the most prestigious universities in Rajasthan lies in promoting a strong passion in the students not just for studies but for all round excellence with perfection; for meeting the challenges head on with due emphasis on ethical and moral values which are the most important to build a strong character. Singhania University produces knowledgeable young citizens capable of creating a better and prosperous India through inter-cultural understanding and respect for the humanity

Acupuncture CEU – Reasons To Have Acupuncture Continuing Education

Acupuncture CEU can be carried out by way of hands on instruction. You are able to obtain the training you need by way of discovering and searching for an approved kinesiology institution or higher education. Acquiring this training will assist you to start using a number of visitors to enable decrease pressure, pains, plus more. Enrollment provides you with the chance to keep to the career people imagine. It is possible to pick from on target areas of analysis and generate the Acupuncture Continuing Education diploma which fits a person’s aims and requires by being familiar with your chances readily available plus applying currently. Training in seo will certainly make students for being specialist. Most of these authorities apply various tactics connected with placing small needles in to the pores and skin as a way to give a form of curing treatment for assorted ailments.

Acupuncture CEU can be used for tension, pain, sickness, plus much more. Scholars who’re trying to enter the natural healing area can perform hence by having an education in homeopathy. Going into the world of natural healing by simply gaining a great acupuncture education can be achieved from several quantities. You can choose from your bachelor’s, grasp or perhaps doctorate amount program to get the actual Acupuncture Continuing Education needed to get into the particular staff. The project associated with entails a unique experience that requires helpful training. Students could go after desired education and learning through several acupuncture profession examine prospects. Holistic healing universities give individuals while using expertise necessary to look after people employing this type of alternative treatment.

Acupuncture CEU is indeed specific that individuals begin coaching with the user’s diploma level. Most amount software programs demand learners to get undergraduate coaching. Kinesiology schools advocate pupils develop a healthcare connected or perhaps complementary medicine college level plan to arrange for scholar training. Within these kind of software programs college students study chemistry, structure, chemistry, as well as other lessons linked to health and fitness of which works on these phones productively end some sort of master’s diploma system. Simply because kinesiology is known as alternative medicine the very best groundwork is going to be gained within a plan that will concentrates on complementary medicine. Acupuncture Continuing Education features students with a selection of locations such as kinesiology, massage, healthy eating plan, and also. Using a fundamental comprehension of alternative treatment students could move directly into a master’s level method.

Acupuncture CEU with the master’s degree stage shows college students to assess some sort of individual’s ailment and also diagnose a therapy program specific on their scenario. Treatment enables you to work with sufferers which have allergies, addictive problems, lean muscle discomfort, and more. Acupuncture Continuing Education shows students to make use of tiny needles in a certain approach to promote our bodies to be able to mend it really is self. The idea is while selected points within the body are usually induced vitality flow towards the area boosts, advertising organic elements to cure our bodies. Classes teaches learners various strategies for example to advertise your healing process. Training can be seriously devoted to clinical classes so that you can prepare individuals to properly make use of needles along with assist buyers. Immediately after finishing an application individuals should be expecting to know numerous sophisticated homeopathy methods offering:

Acupuncture CEU methods are usually thoroughly investigated within precise courses. American, botanical drugs, chihuahua, treatments, top of the head kinesiology, along with eating routine are a couple of training topics in which put together pupils intended for occupations. Individuals of which proceed schooling with the doctor’s degree of training will Acupuncture CEU probably acquire superior knowledge in the standard Acupuncture Continuing Education plus American medicine. Training continues approximately two years and targets specialized medical and analysis coaching. Organic health professional prescribed, china treatments, chinese medicine beneficial administration soreness supervision, and natural healing education are typical training inside a doctor’s diploma system. Nearly all students in which continue the amount are usually preparing themselves to get in analysis primarily based or  Acupuncture Continuing Education teaching occupations. Students may enter in approved traditional chinese medicine programs by first doing the necessary basic instruction.

Employment of two sessions focused attention to it education and training – steel forming machine

IDC’s annual IT Professional Education Industry Market Report recently released official data showed the number one for five consecutive years before the Beida Jade Bird Group once again by 38.6{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9} market share tops the sales of as much as 1.77 billion yuan. This phenomenon raises Beida Jade Bird IT Training Patterns of great concern. This concern includes not only the IT industry, including some of the public.

Cause for concern is the training and employment during the two sessions once again become the focus of the representative members, and Beida Jade Bird in seven years, the cultivation of 31.2 million people a job, these jobs are mostly people who can not find work; high school, 45{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9} secondary education, college and university education accounted for 55{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9}. Therefore, exploration of IT vocational education model will help to promote social employment.nt.

Report that 2007 is the professional IT training market is more rational and mature one year after the market’s survival of the fittest. Beida Jade Bird to further consolidate its market leadership position, revealing the strong get stronger the effect. According to the report, ranking second in the NIIT, only 6.88{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9} market share; while ranking third Xinhua Computer Only 4.15{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9} market share is far behind the Beida. What kind of mode decision Beida Jade Bird’s success? IT training model should be taken to sustainable development? To promote employment?

Positioning alignment, design courses according to demand

Current computer courses to upgrade education, chronic disease is not synchronized with the development of IT technology, materials updated slowly. Beida Jade Bird timely aware of the defect, the establishment of a panel, the United States, India and more than 150 experts from R & D team composed of course, on thousands of IT enterprises in the deep Research , The curriculum once every eighteen months to upgrade. CEO

Beida Yang Ming that the upgrading of the computer industry too fast, in the traditional computer science education, there are many theoretical foundation and application courses are hands-on courses can not keep up the pace of development of information industry, Student After work they can not get started immediately, often go through training, and Blue Bird in the design of courses, leaving only a core part of the basic theory, while the heavy head on the latest application operation. Basically, every group of students learned not to repeat, is the latest, fastest to adapt to the market.

Out to students to make more competitive, Bluebird measures far more than these, Yang Ming talk about these very familiar: eight industry-wide practice of real projects, case studies from the financial, Telecommunications And transport eight popular industry participants during the training will receive a wealth of practical experience, get rid of “empty talk” of the puzzle, advance into the working state; professional quality training throughout the entire process, focusing on training students to strengthen the viability and essential workplace ethics . Achieved triple Network Recommend students for employment, the headquarters, regional and central personnel recommended jointly established Service Network, with more than 3,000 well-known enterprises at home and abroad signed talent Cooperation Agreement to provide adequate job security.

In Beida, only 30{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9} of the students are learning computer science, more students a layman, “we have done is to bring industry participants outside the industry, pure computer science but not many Many students also come from nothing to the liberal arts and computer professional. “Beida Jade Bird brand director Wu Zhen said. It is understood that some students had just arrived when the Beida Jade Bird, with the first open Host Or the first open Monitor Do not know, but they then can become a good programmer.

Region is the King or Happy Valley enclosure?

Training industry is big or strong first do first have had a different opinion, Beida Jade Bird pioneers in people chose to join the debate in the form of chain and quickly spread throughout the country. This model to some extent the choice of the Beida success it is today.

With the rising brand awareness and training established by the number of branches increase the enrollment capacity of Bluebird growing, market share further, resulting in steadily increasing revenue. Revenue growth in recent years remained at 40{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9}. As of the end of 2007, Beida Jade Bird Total 227 training centers, including Direct Center 5, joining center 172.

By Beida Jade Bird Franchise The business model for the alliance partner to provide advanced business Management Method, continuous, stable, high-quality professional services, support and training to advanced standards, scientific and systematic system of vocational education programs for the IT support, a nationwide training system built Beida.

To join other industry chain phenomenon is very common, but the first time the franchise Bluebird introduced into the education sector for the first time, people first challenge is how you ensure that each campus have the same good quality Bluebird? “Exactly the same management standards and the teaching process to ensure our quality.” Yang Ming said. This is an innovation in the industry, the first step of the Bluebird has stood the test of the market.

Joined Beida has very strict requirements, not have enough money you can join the. Beida Jade Bird APTECH all those who wish to join, must have some “harsh” conditions. Financial strength, the minimum capital investment of not less than 1.5 million yuan, franchisee invested in the project, the proportion of own funds of not less than 51{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9}. Management capacity, the center opened early 3 months, the headquarters will be professionals in various departments resident start, important work is to implement Recruitment , Training, completion of internship and probation, Beida Jade Bird set up a qualified team of employees authorized training center, then they have started a new center to normal operations Investment People. In the communication, Beida Jade Bird headquarters and the links between the centers is highly intensive. Headquarters for the support of each center to develop a successful upgrade program, and requested feedback data center to the headquarters every week and circumstances of the accuracy and objectivity.

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Education at Its Best in Borivali

Borivali is a place in Mumbai said to be the suburban area located in the north – west of the city. Borivali consists of many high quality schools that are affiliated to different boards like CBSE, ICSE or the state boards. Some schools in Borivali are also affiliated to the international educational boards. The place has higher literacy rate as compared to the other places of that area.

There are number of schools in Borivali that are 100{fc9777fa554cefba41fcf62ed63ee449ec9939ca2839f8dff4a363da5969f6e9} reliable in terms of education and all round development of a student. Some of such international schools are JBCN International School, Ajmera Global High School, Dr Pillai Global Academy and so on. JBCN International School located at Baburao Ranade Marg is a co educational English medium school affiliated to the IGCSE board. The school believes in creating leaders for tomorrow who strives for academic excellence. Education is imparted through edu creative experiences to the students. The faculty is considered as the backbone of the school. The student teacher ratio is 15: 1 .

Ajmera Global High School located on Ekshar Road is a co educational English medium school from class nursery to class 12th. The school has been awarded International Centre Status by university of Cambridge International Examination (CIE). The school aim is to give quality education to all student and develop them as a sound personality.The campus of the school is well equipped with the high class infrastructure like spacious, ventilated classrooms, Reference Libraries, Computer lab, Chemistry, Biology and Physics laboratories, Multi-purpose hall, Media Center, Cafeteria, School Bus service, Sick bay/medical room, Swimming pool, Skating rink, Open atrium, Athletic running track, Sports ground, Well equipped music and yoga room. The extracurricular activities that are available in the schools are Swimming, Skating, Dance, Karate, Gymnastics, Athletic running, Cricket, football and tennis, Music and yoga.

Apart from international schools, the place Borivali west is also known for their CBSE and ICSE schools. Some of the best CBSE and ICSE schools in the area are Cambridge School, St Rock’s school, BES International School, Matushri Kashiben Vrajlal Valia International Vidyalaya, Sailee International School, Ryan Christian School etc.Matushri Kashiben Vrajlal Valia International Vidyalaya is one of the leading school in Borivali west, it comes under the control of CBSE board. It is a co educational English medium school which serves education up to class 12th. The students of the schools get to participate in many activities that could be related to academics or even sports and music. Students are prepared for the challenges of tomorrow. Students of the school develop confidence towards themselves and commitment towards their work.

Sailee International School is an ICSE affiliated school. The school is co educational and provides education in the English language. The school is located at Gorai Road and it educates children till class 10th. The school is very famous in the area for the facilities it give to the students. The aim of the school is to groom up the complete personality of a student.All the schools at Borivali are focused in meeting up the parents expectations. They stand by their words and promises made. Therefore choice of school can be made as per the desired location.

OnlineSchoolAdmissions.com is an educational website for admission in various schools across the India. Here you will find the list of Top ranking CBSE, ICSE, IGCSC, IB, Boarding, International and Play Schools in India category and city wise. Explore World Schools in Mumbai and Play Schools in Mumbai or Boarding Schools in Mumbai and much more.

Commerce And Finance Education In Modern Era

Commerce Education is that area of education which develops the required knowledge, skills and attitudes for the successful handling of trade, commerce and industry. Commerce consists of a wide range of inter-disciplinary branches including accountancy, business administration, e-commerce, finance, economics and marketing.

Commerce Education has a sea of options and opportunities for those who want to put their step forward in Business and follow its strategies. The career in commerce and finance is full of hard challenges and practical facts. It prepares students to succeed in both self and corporate employment and it also motivate to start their own business and run it professionally without the need to pay for expert services such as accountants and market consultants. The subjects offered in undergraduate degree courses in commerce are structured to impart in graduates competency in business principles and general management areas, and include statistics, mathematics, accountancy, book keeping, law, economics, international trade, finance and marketing.

A combination of undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in commerce and finance is offered by universities/colleges worldwide that serve as landmarks in education, and include Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com.) : a program of study for duration of three years imparts foundation knowledge of commerce and Bachelor of Commerce (Honors): an academic degree program that offers general expertise as well as specialization options at the graduation level.
Graduates with a degree in commerce, finance and related disciplines can pursue higher education at the postgraduate level such as a Master of Commerce (M. Com.), Master of Financial Management (MFM), Master of Business Administration (MBA) and a Master of Financial Accounting (MFA). M. Com. and MFM degree courses are among the more popularly subscribed academic programs in commerce and finance education.

Alliance College of Commerce, Alliance University

The Alliance College of Commerce is one of the best commerce and finance colleges in Bangalore offers Bachelor of Commerce (Honors), Master of Financial Management (MFM), and Master of Commerce (M.Com.) courses that seek to build and nurture graduates equipped with strong academic skills and expertise in commerce, finance, taxation, accountancy and other related disciplines of business studies. The courses are delivered by distinguished full-time faculty as well as renowned industry practitioners. The Alliance College of Commerce prepares graduates in the area of commerce and finance for highly-challenging careers in investment banking, wealth management, taxation, consulting and also career in academics and research. The college of commerce is poised to take forward the commerce and finance education to its new frontiers. The college also offers value added courses such as softskill training, Tally, IFRS training, capital market operations.

Bachelor of Commerce (Hons.): B.Com.(Hons.)

The B.Com.(Hons) degree is skill oriented with specialization streams in the core areas of commerce and Finance. B. Com.(Hons.) degree provides a learning ambience that challenges the students mind through competitive learning, emphasizing on inculcating business intelligence and transforming them into socially responsible managers and business leaders. Alliance College of Commerce is one of the best education providers in the area of commerce and finance and it prepares the students as an administrator and proves to be more directly employable. To ensure personality development and employability opportunities for B.Com (Hons.) graduates, Alliance College of Commerce offers value added courses such as softskill training, Tally, capital market operation at B.Com.(Hons.) level itself. The college is one of the best B.Com.(Hons) degree colleges in Bangalore and it provides a good foundation in accounting, finance, taxation, marketing and auditing.

Master of Financial Management (MFM):

There are few colleges in Bangalore offers Master of Financial Management course. Alliance College of Commerce offers Master of Financial Management course is a two-year, four-semester, multidisciplinary course that covers all areas of study related to the financial industry. The course designed to provide the students with the means to gain exposure to five major areas of finance: corporate finance, financial markets, investments, banking, and insurance. A graduate can choose to pursue challenging careers in financial institutions, investment banking, wealth management, pension funds, securities brokerage, and investment firms. Master of Financial Management is one of the best post graduate courses in Finance area which fully focuses on development of financial management skills. Alliance College of Commerce, Alliance University is best college which offers Finance course in Bangalore. The course is uniquely endowed with the necessary resources and expertise to produce financial professionals of highest order.

Master of Commerce (M. Com.):
The Master of Commerce degree course gives in-depth subject knowledge in the area of Commerce and Finance. The Alliance College of Commerce offers Master of Commerce degree course that provides an opportunity for graduates to acquire theoretical as well as practical inputs relating to the various segments of commerce, finance, taxation, accountancy. Graduates from accounting studies can pursue career paths in banking, financial management, and accounting and financial systems. Graduates can also pursue careers as public accountants in commercial, government and private sectors, or alternatively in academics as faculty and researchers in finance and commerce fields.

Dr.Rekhakala A.M.
Professor of Finance & Program Director
Alliance College of Commerce, Alliance University
Bangalore.